Register

# 2.7. Functional Programming - Procedural Abstraction: The Filtering and Folding (Reduce) Patterns¶

## 2.7.1. The Filtering Pattern¶

Consider the following two functions with some samples of their usage. First a function called keepPositive.

// Given a list, return a list with the positive numbers
var keepPositive = function (ns) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return [ ];
else if (fp.isGT(fp.hd(ns),0))
return fp.cons(fp.hd(ns),
keepPositive(fp.tl(ns)));
else
return keepPositive(fp.tl(ns));
}

> keepPositive([-1,1,0,-10,-20,2,3,-30])
[ 1, 2, 3 ]
> censor(["Functions","loops","assignments",
"and","recursion","are","essential"])
['Functions','and','recursion','are','essential']


Next a function called censor, with its helper isAcceptable.

// Censor out all unacceptable words in a list of strings
var censor = function (sentence) {
if (fp.isNull(sentence))
return [ ];
else if (isAcceptable(fp.hd(sentence)))
return fp.cons(fp.hd(sentence),
censor(fp.tl(sentence)));
else
return censor(fp.tl(sentence));
}

var isAcceptable = function (word) {
if (fp.isMember(word, [ "loops",
"assignments",
"side effects" ]))
return false
else
return true;
}

> censor(["Functional", "programming", "includes", "functions", "mapping", "loops", "assignments", "side effects", "currying"]);
[ 'Functional', 'programming', 'includes', 'functions', 'mapping', 'currying' ]


In your own words, try to fill in the following sets of ?????. Both the keepPositive and censor functions take in a ????? and return a ????? that is obtained by ?????. Your answers to these questions will have described a pattern called filtering. The following filter function abstracts that pattern.

var filter = function (pred,ns) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return [ ];
else if (pred(fp.hd(ns)))
return fp.cons(fp.hd(ns),
filter(pred,fp.tl(ns)));
else
return filter(pred,fp.tl(ns));
}


Here are some examples of using the filter function to achieve the same results we obtained previously for keepPositive and censor.

> var keepPositive2 = function (ns)  {
return filter(function (n) { return fp.isGT(n,0); }, ns); }
> var keepPositive3 = fp.curry(filter)(function (n) { return fp.isGT(n,0); });
> keepPositive2([-1,1,0,-10,-20,2,3,-30])      // same output as for keepPositive
> keepPositive3([-1,1,0,-10,-20,2,3,-30])      // same output as for keepPositive

> var censor2 = function (words) { return filter(isAcceptable, words); }
> var censor3 = fp.curry(filter)(isAcceptable)
> censor2(["Functions","loops","assignments",    // same output as for censor
"and","recursion","are","essential"])
> censor3(["Functions","loops","assignments",    // same output as for censor
"and","recursion","are","essential"])


This first problem deals with the filtering pattern.

## 2.7.2. Folding/Reducing¶

To discover our next pattern, try to discern what the following sum and count functions have in common.

// Return the sum of all the numbers in a flat list
var sum = function (ns) {
var helper = function (ns,a) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return a;
else
return helper(fp.tl(ns),
}
return helper(ns,0);
}

> sum([1,2,3])
6

// Return a count of how many times n occurs in the list ns
var count = function (n,ns) {
var helper = function (ns,a) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return a;
else
return helper(fp.tl(ns),
fp.isEq(fp.hd(ns),n)
? 1
: 0));
}
return helper(ns,0);
}

> count(-1,[-1,0,1,2,-1,-1])
3


Next, in your own words, try to fill in the following sets of ?????. Both helper functions in sum and count start out with a ????? and a ????? and return a ????? that is obtained by ?????. Your answers to these questions will have described a pattern called folding or reducing*. The following reduce function abstracts that pattern.

var reduce = function (f,ns,acc) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return acc;
else
return reduce(f,fp.tl(ns),f(acc,fp.hd(ns)));
}


Next we show how to use reduce to create the sum and count functions that we previously had to write ourselves.

> var sum2 = function (ns) { return reduce(fp.add,ns,0); }
> var count2 = function (n,ns) {
return reduce(function(a,x) {
return fp.add(a,fp.isEq(x,n) ? 1 : 0); },
ns, 0); }

> sum2([1,2,3])                    // same output as with sum
> count2(-1,[-1,0,1,2,-1,-1])      // same output as with count


Following are four additional examples of how the reduce function can be used.

1. Here is a non-recursive definition of the factorial function that uses reduce and the fillIn function defined in Section 2.6.
var factorial = function (n) { return reduce(fp.mul,fillIn(1,n),1); }

1. How would you rewrite the function that takes in a list and returns its length?
var length = function (ns) { return reduce( ???, ???, ???); }

1. How would you rewrite the function that takes in a list and reverses it?
var reverse = function (ns) { return reduce( ???, ???, ???); }

1. What does this function do?
var figureItOut = function (l1,l2) {
return reduce( function(a,n) { return fp.cons(n,a); }, l1, l2);
};


Reducing from the right: Whereas the reduce function we have defined applies its helper function f to produce the accumulated value acc in left-to-right order as it works through the list, we could also define a similar function that applied the helper function in right-to-left fashion as it worked through the list.

var reduceRight = function (f,ns,acc) {
if (fp.isNull(ns))
return acc;
else
return f( fp.hd(ns), reduceRight(f,fp.tl(ns),acc) );
}


So, the expression $1 - (2 - (3 - (4 - 5)))$ can be computed as follows:

subtractFromRight([1,2,3,4,5])


if the function substractFromRight is defined as follows (what should the ??? be):

var subtractFromRight = function (ns) { return reduceRight( ??? ,ns,0); }


Simlarly, reduceRight is exactly what we need to build the append function:

var append = function (l1,l2) { return reduceRight(fp.cons, l1, l2); };


This problem deals with the folding pattern.

## 2.7.3. Folding/Reducing (2)¶

This problem uses both the mapping and the folding patterns.

## 2.7.4. Folding/Reducing (3)¶

This problem will give you intensive practice with the folding pattern. This problem is randomized and must be solved three times in a row.